The history Rome from its fictional beginnings in 753 BCE to what is the accepted date of its fall in 479 CE has been subject to an immense amount of scholarly work. Historians since Rome’s founding have been fascinated with the history of Rome. Though we have primary sources from the period, often we derive our modern history about Rome from the histories written by scholars, who themselves were writing about Rome. One of the most difficult aspects that scholars of Roman history face is defining the period that can be called “Roman History”. Scholars often argue about when Rome was founded, and when it really ends. For the purpose of this compilation of Roman history the period that will be examined will stretch from 1200 BCE to 479 CE. This however is somewhat deceiving as the sources that are available for the period of 1200 BCE to 264 BCE are rather thin. The historians of the “Golden Age” of Roman literature largely relied on a series of scholars called the Annalists, though much of their works have been lost to us, and we are forced to rely on the extensive, though somewhat fragmented works of Roman historians from after the First Punic War in 264 BCE.
For the purposes of this documentation of Roman history, the history of Rome will be broken down chronologically into several distinct sections. The first period, 1200 BCE to 264 BCE will cover early Roman period, and what is unfortunately, the worst documented period in Roman history. The Second period, 264 BCE to 146 BCE will examine Rome’s wars against its leading competitor of the day, Carthage. The third Period 146 BCE to 60 BCE will examine the struggles of the Roman Republic that have been cited as the catalysts that brought an end to the Roman Republic. The fourth period, 60 BCE to 31 BCE will examine the rise and fall of Julius Caesar and how his successor Octavian, later Augustus, forever changed the Roman Republic.
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